An introduction to the history of the northern renaissance

Gutenberg is also credited with the introduction of an oil-based ink that was more durable than the previously used water-based inks.

The relatively unrestricted circulation of information and revolutionary ideas transcended borders. The movement that led to it had begun at the beginning of the century, since which time Europe had experienced a complete reconstruction of its culture.

Copper engravings were the work of goldsmiths, who were experienced draughtsmen.

northern renaissance timeline

This approach, attached to observation and experience, showed the artists that shapes lose their contours the further away they are, and that the intensity of the colour decreases and assumes a bluish hue. In eastern Europe, however, the formerly free peasantry was now forced into serfdom by an alliance between the monarchy and the landed gentry, as huge agrarian estates were formed to raise grain for an expanding Western market.

Aloof from entangling obligations, Erasmus was the center of the literary movement of his time, corresponding with more than men in the worlds of politics and thought.

In etching and engravingon the other hand, the artist engraves or etches 'bites' with acid the lines on a metal plate.

Northern renaissance art

In their religious paintings , painters attempted to reproduce space, colour, volume and light as naturalistically as possible. It was suddenly important who had said or written what, and what the precise formulation and time of composition was. In the woodcut the white portions of the drawings are cut down in the wood block until the drawing stands out in relief, when it can be inked. The Ghent Altarpiece exemplified Netherlandish Christian art of the early 15th century, although Bosch and Bruegel the Elder produced their own innovative religious works. Jan Van Eyck Jan van Eyck, a contemporary of Campin, is widely considered to be one of the most significant Northern European painters of the 15th century. Haywain Triptych Prado, Madrid. Even the lure of Italy was an old obsession; but the size and vigour of the 16th-century expeditions were new. Key Terms Johannes Gutenberg: c. Pieter Bruegel the Elder c. By the end of the 15th century, van der Weyden surpassed even van Eyck in popularity. Thus the copperplate-engraving can work with fine, intersecting lines and much more freely, than the wood-engraver, who at first carefully avoided all cross-hatching.

In the following decades, Castilian hidalgos lower nobleswhose fathers had crusaded against the Moors in Spain, streamed across the Atlantic to make their fortunes out of the land and sweat of the Native Americanswhile others marched in the armies and sailed in the ships of their king, Charles I, who, as Charles Vwas elected Holy Roman emperor in at the age of Early wooden printing press, depicted in Such presses could produce up to impressions per hour.

For further discussion, see below The emergence of modern Europe: Economy and society.

northern renaissance characteristics

Portraiture was another area in which German artists shone, as too was wood carving. If we date the beginning of the new age from aboutthe year in which the New World was discovered - this is only the turning point of the revolution.

In the 16th century, mythological and other themes from history became more uniform amongst northern and Italian artists.

Northern renaissance map

Spread of printing in the 15th century from Mainz, Germany: Printing places showing the spread of incunabula printing in the 15th century. The Northern Renaissance Erasmus Erasmus of Rotterdam was a renowned Humanist scholar and theologian who wrote several important texts criticizing the superstition and formalism of the church while upholding its core spiritual values. In the woodcut the white portions of the drawings are cut down in the wood block until the drawing stands out in relief, when it can be inked. ISBN His type case is estimated to have contained around separate letter boxes, most of which were required for special characters, ligatures, punctuation marks, etc. Renaissance in Germany - Characteristics The German Renaissance was noted for its graphic arts and printmaking , both connected to German expertise in the printing process, as in the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in the s. New York: Harry N. Because the printing process ensured that the same information fell on the same pages, page numbering, tables of contents, and indices became common. Key Terms illusionism: The realistic and precise representation of people, space, and objects. It marked the start of the age of the printed book in the West and is widely praised for its high aesthetic and artistic qualities.
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The Northern Renaissance