An analysis of english parliaments rise of power in the seventeenth century
During these eleven years the opposition was organising itself as well as growing.
Oliver Cromwell first showed his genius in overcoming these weaknesses and showing that a revolutionary war must be organised in a revolutionary way. This in its turn led to corresponding changes in the State machinery. They forced their incomes up to meet the rise in the prices of the goods they had to buy.
British parliament history pdf
The Scots were angry, and began a rebellion. But for many smaller cultivators they meant depression, the raising of rents and dues of various kinds, the enclosure of the common fields on which the villagers had for centuries pastured their cattle and geese. Charles II Is some ways, it looked like Charles might have an easy time of it. Coal played a prominent part in the growth of very many other industries — iron, tin, glass, soap, shipbuilding. He outraged commercial circles by seizing bullion deposited in the Tower and by proposing to debase the coinage. Commissions were set up to punish landlords whose enclosures had led to eviction, but the financial extremity of the Government was such that it could never resist the offers of rich men to buy themselves off. There was Archbishop Laud in London. Queen Mary succeeded in re-establishing Catholicism for a few years, but could not get the monastic estates back out of the clutches of their purchasers. In fact, until about , the monarchy had many interests in common with those of the bourgeoisie in town and country — in the struggle against Spain, against the international Catholic Church, against rival noble houses disputing supreme control with the House of Tudor and ruining the country with their private wars, Hence the collaboration in Parliament between monarchy, gentry and bourgeoisie. In the country as a whole, the division went along broad class lines.
The State machine — which depended on the support of the middle-class J. The problems faced by James grew greater under his son and successor Charles I.
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His right to possession was not always recognised by the common law courts. In face of these facts, the manoeuvres of the Government to enlist the support of the poorer peasants against their landlords deceived no one except a recent school of reactionary historians — They rely largely on the statement of the historian Clarendon that the period was one of great prosperity for the mass of the populace. James claimed that his weak foreign policy was due to lack of money, at a time when the bourgeoisie was becoming visibly richer. Consequently, it came to reflect the division among the English gentry corresponding roughly to the economic division between feudal north-west and capitalist south-east. There was an acute struggle of all classes to profit by the agricultural changes taking place. So they do not ever give us reasons which would seem to us sufficient to justify the devotion and the sacrifices of our ancestors in their struggles. But these peasants and small artisans were losing their independence. What men were fighting about was the whole nature and future development of English society. In fact, until about , the monarchy had many interests in common with those of the bourgeoisie in town and country — in the struggle against Spain, against the international Catholic Church, against rival noble houses disputing supreme control with the House of Tudor and ruining the country with their private wars, Hence the collaboration in Parliament between monarchy, gentry and bourgeoisie. The local barriers to trade broke down. Both in the Middle Ages and in the seventeenth century the first importance of an estate was that it supplied a land owner through his control over the labour of others with the means of livelihood.
Those forced off the farms tended to go to the towns and cities to look for work, and the large numbers of people competing for jobs put further downward pressure on wages. So the Elizabethan Church stood for passive obedience to divinely constituted authority, and preached that rebellion was the worst possible sin.
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