A comparison of gender or sex roles in myanmar and the united states

Myanmar womens faces

MA prevention programs that reflect gender considerations should be developed to pay more attention to vulnerable populations such as migrants, clients of sex workers, and less educated female MA users. Conclusions Limited exposure to SRH information and high risky sexual debut among poor youths were found. A total of eight initial seeds four males and four females were interviewed and requested to recruit three other MA users to take part in this study. This topic is particularly important in Myanmar, which is recognized as one of the key MA production countries in the Southeast Asia region. It is notable that the rate of unwillingness at first sex or being forced into sex was extremely high among females in our study compared to a study conducted among out-of-school youths in China [ 24 ]. Adequate exposure to proper SRH information has been shown to have a protective effect on risky sexual behaviors and reduce negative RH outcomes [ 6 , 7 ]. Dissemination of reliable SRH information among youths through possible mass media, especially among males, is an urgent issue. It is also an opportunistic period for them in which they must learn to adapt and make important decisions for embracing their future. However, various socio-economic factors deter youths from receiving basic SRH information as well as achieving a safe and responsible sexual debut [ 3 , 5 , 8 , 9 ]. If the youth did not have any identification, their traditional birth record was used instead.

On the other hand, the level of early sexual debut among both males and females was alarmingly high in our study compared to a Chinese study in which sexual debut before age 18 among youths was rare [ 10 ]. The RDS procedure was begun by selecting initial participants who were non-randomly selected members of the target population.

Dissemination of reliable SRH information among youths through possible mass media, especially among males, is an urgent issue.

Sexual debut was defined as sexual intercourse involving vaginal or anal penetration for the first time. Figure 2 Full size image Discussion The levels of exposure to SRH information and risky sexual debut among poor youths in suburban communities of Mandalay City, Myanmar were unfavorable. Marital status was categorized as never married versus ever married. Changing risky sexual behaviors is an important strategy for preventing STI and HIV transmission among drug users [ 19 ]. All proposed youths had a right to participate in the study using informed consent. Nowadays, early and risky sexual debut among youths is increasing worldwide along with higher adverse RH consequences [ 5 ]. Variables having a p-value less than 0. However, to date, no epidemiological research has examined high-risk sexual behaviors inconsistent condom use, having multiple sexual partners and having a history of sexually transmitted infections among MA users. Altogether, a total of 3, youths were identified living in those 10 communities of Mandalay City. This topic is particularly important in Myanmar, which is recognized as one of the key MA production countries in the Southeast Asia region. Migrating to a new environment may play an important role in initiation and continuation of illegal substance and risky sexual behavior. This methodology is similar to that used to examine multiple indicators of high-risk sexual behavior [ 10 ] and drug dependence symptoms [ 38 ]. Unwillingness to have sex at sexual debut was defined as youths who were forced to have sex or those who had to have sex not for pleasure but for money to survive at their first intercourse. However, the studies investigating risky sexual behaviors among drug using populations focus on separate risk behavior measurements, such as only considering inconsistent condom use as the outcome variable. The details of the recruitment and interview procedures have been described elsewhere [ 33 , 37 ].

Many youths are also sexually active by this age. There are four broad suburban areas on the outskirts of Mandalay City. However, the Myanmar government cannot put much effort into controlling stimulant drug use because of the burden of opiate drug use that has long been a concern.

The rate of premarital sex in our study was higher than that in studies conducted in Nigeria and Eastern Ethiopia; however the rate of condom non-use at sexual debut and having sex with a non-regular partner was similar to our study [ 1123 ].

Condom use was measured on a scale from 1 to 5 always, almost, sometimes, never, and do not remember. Location was categorized as resident versus migrant, and employment status as unemployed versus employed. The generalized estimating equation GEE model approach was therefore applied to accommodate these interrelationships.

gender roles in myanmar

Unwillingness to have sex at sexual debut was defined as youths who were forced to have sex or those who had to have sex not for pleasure but for money to survive at their first intercourse. Marital status was categorized as never married versus ever married.

These key populations also often use MA [ 8252627 ].

A comparison of gender or sex roles in myanmar and the united states

While parental guardianship and media exposure influenced exposure to SRH information among males, these factors were not significant among females. Descriptive analyses were conducted to estimate the frequencies of the indicators of high-risk sexual behaviors and the frequencies of the other covariates, and to determine whether they differed between the male and female MA users. Therefore, this study examined factors associated with high-risk sexual behaviors among MA users in Muse city, Myanmar. On the other hand, the level of early sexual debut among both males and females was alarmingly high in our study compared to a Chinese study in which sexual debut before age 18 among youths was rare [ 10 ]. All three measures were asked with counter check double filter questions. Mandalay City, situated in central Myanmar, is a densely populated area with a relatively low cultural, racial and social heterogeneity. Sexual orientation and a visit to sex workers in the preceding six months were considered only for male MA users because of the low response of female users. If the youth did not have any identification, their traditional birth record was used instead.

Results A large proportion of MA users engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors inconsistent condom use: males,

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